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As a folklore and performance studies scholar, my focus is on the emergence of genres and on how their contemporary artistic creativity is rooted in the traditional contexts in which they are produced. As part of the first generation of television viewers in Turkey, and growing up with TRT 1 , my own personal memory of television serials, foreign and Turkish alike, also guided me in structuring my research. In its contemporary version, dizis have come to offer a hybridity of different narrative forms including musical, spatial, cinematographic and visual as well as textual. This essay has therefore a historical-ethnographic approach to the dizi world, examining how the dizis we have been watching since the mids grew to become a different cultural genre from those we were watching in the s and 80s.

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As a folklore and performance studies scholar, my focus is on the emergence of genres and on how their contemporary artistic creativity is rooted in the traditional contexts in which they are produced.

As part of the first generation of television viewers in Turkey, and growing up with TRT 1 , my own personal memory of television serials, foreign and Turkish alike, also guided me in structuring my research. In its contemporary version, dizis have come to offer a hybridity of different narrative forms including musical, spatial, cinematographic and visual as well as textual.

This essay has therefore a historical-ethnographic approach to the dizi world, examining how the dizis we have been watching since the mids grew to become a different cultural genre from those we were watching in the s and 80s. Dizis had been formerly analyzed by scholars in the field of sociology and media studies, who usually approached them as textual narratives, analyzed with an eye on gender, class or semiological representations. At the beginning of the research, I was interested in other narrative components, particularly in musical narratives as a new element of the overall construction of the dizi, but also the editing process which had an important influence on how the episode story would reach the audiences.

Much later, I also had a chance to interview actors, producers and set workers in different contexts. Their accounts over the past years have helped me to better examine the intertextuality between these different narrative forms in constructing the contemporary dizi as a genre. The soap, for instance, has been politically situated in an escapist mood within the developing economies of post depression America in the s, while the telenovela boomed during the authoritarian military coup era during the s and the 80s 3.

Both genres had initially started on the radio, the soap operas had literally been sponsored by the soap industry, since the s, and the radio telenovelas since the s. The soap narrative had been formulated by advertising executives, while the telenovela genre has been linked to traditional circus theater combined with the populism of the Brazilian theater. They also established the desire for particular kinds of dizi production. One can easily state that the dizi has evolved in time since the mid s to become a semi-structural form as of the s.

My research question starts therefore with a search for understanding the historical context in which the dizi established itself as the genre we know of and discuss today. Broadcasting was limited to three days a week and black and white only until It is therefore useful to begin by looking at the traditional habits of Turkish audiences and their sense of entertainment. One can easily state that traditional theater had a sense of what we call the sitcom genre today 4.

A survey of the texts of Karagöz and Ortaoyunu will clearly reveal how traditional theater used situational comedy through punning, misunderstandings or absurd encounters 5. There the content would be based more on Middle Eastern stories, be they heroic, religious or romantic. These stories would in fact circulate through illustrated printed booklets through the XIXth century. Later, during the nation-building period in Republican times, radio broadcasting became the major media.

News and music programs were the popular forms; particularly radio theater serials emerged as an important genre in the s, captivating audiences consisting mostly of housewives and students. While television sets were precious home appliances, they were also a source of socialization, creating a semi-public sphere within the domestic space, as many people needed to share television through house visits.

Discovering Colorful Lives in Black and White: TRT Broadcasting during the s and s 10During the s, the main formats of Turkish television consisted of news, music shows, and movies, mostly Hollywood black and white cinema. Along with Dr. Kimble, charismatic Colombo and Mc Millan and Wife also accompanied this trend. TRT imported many unscripted formats from abroad as well. The first generation of Turkish television viewers were thus exposed to European formats, becoming fans of RAI studio shows, which starred phenomenal Italian singers like Raffaella Carra, Mina and Adriano Celentano.

One other important format showing contests among different German villages had become the highlight of Sunday daytime broadcasting. Although these stories were well-known stories of modern Turkish literature, they were not written for television.

Exposed to fascinating foreign content, the majority of the Turkish audience found these pioneering television films depressing. They had a hard time interpreting the cinematographic symbolism of the movie directors who adapted these stories.

TRT decided to commission acclaimed poet and novelist Atilla İlhan to write original scripts. Kartallar Yüksek Uçar was set in Izmir on the Aegean cost. It focused on competing families, generational clashes and romance, contextualized in the social-political landscape of Republican Turkish history. The essential desire was the analysis of Turkish society and history with a critical eye.

And with his Marxist background and loyalty to traditional culture, Atilla İlhan was the perfect choice as an intellectual writer with a foot in Turkish cinema 8. Novel adaptations usually depicted the late Ottoman social life and political events in the 19th century period. Loyal to the original novels, they were effective domestic productions, which appealed to Turkish audiences through the s. This genre began with the phenomenal 4.

Performed by prominent theater actors and actresses, this series adopted a strong theatrical frame. For Turkish television viewers the content of soap operas and telenovelas matched very well the memory of Turkish cinema of the s, which consisted heavily of melodrama.

This was indeed the reason why TRT had also invested in family and neighborhood drama in the s. The first sitcom Kaynanalar [The In-Laws], which had begun airing in was a great success and proved that Turkish familial humor, but also melodrama, could compete with imported drama. Perihan Abla, in particular, which was set in Kuzguncuk, a neighborhood along the Bosphorus, was the harbinger of the many other neighborhood based dizi genres of the following years.

These were the years where the national monopoly of TRT was broken, and new scripted and unscripted formats or imported foreign productions began airing on private channels. These were the years when the popular music industry boomed with the rise of private radio broadcasting along with special music channels on television. These channels featured video clips, but casting a singer in a drama offered a more rewarding opportunity for drama producers.

These series served their producers and the private networks very well, displaying singers for a longer time than a video clip, and benefiting from their fans. This trend continued until the economic crisis hit the industry, which could not afford the high prices for the stars. Strict regulations falling upon them as a state network brought a certain limit to their genre and format choices.

During these years, TRT focused on series depicting the family milieu, both as drama and comedy. They also produced documentaries and historical drama, taking the lead in domains where private networks could not yet invest or give priority.

TRT could also produce its own documentaries, whereas private networks used mostly imported ones. These were the years where private networks were testing their strength in this new television landscape, which was indeed an industry-in-progress.

Many of them hired producers from TRT, but TRT still had more power to cover more areas in the national territory and to access the relevant range of actors both from the cinema and theater worlds. Moreover compared to private production companies, TRT still offered a secure venue and more possibility to be widely broadcast.

Industry-in-Progress: Towards a Balance Between State and Private Television 20In the aftermath of a decade-long establishment of private broadcasting, the television industry moved in new directions during the s. Trying to find a new balance between state and private television, a new epoch began where TRT lost its monopoly position and the rise in broadcasting time created more need for scripted and unscripted formats.

Many networks tried to fill this time with foreign drama and shows, but imported substitution was not so easy when not subsidized. These years were an era of searching for new creative content, which would circulate from one network to another, once successful. The search for new content also expanded towards the depiction of issues like migration or ethnicity, in the socio-political context of Turkey struggling with identity politics.

Seeking to captivate more audiences, historical focus emerged as a new domain of creative content for private broadcasters.

One other important subgenre was the so-called töre dizileri tribal series. These series centered on social life in the southeast of Turkey, where traditional norms abound. Their stories revolved around the household of a powerful landowner, love triangles and family solidarity. Another important subgenre, which was launched during this era was the political action genre focusing on intelligence services and conspiracy issues in the Middle East region.

Given all this diversity, one can easily state that the s were in fact the constructive years of the dizi genre as we speak of today. This terminology may or may not change in time, but the genre of dizi stands apart from the soap or telenovela in different ways. Historically speaking, the development of the Turkish dizi world has been tied to the international repertoire of television drama. International television series have had a great impact on Turkish audiences, determining their modes of television watching, establishing their perception of high quality content and creating the imaginaire towards the construction of the dizi genre.

As a genre, it has different features from the soap and telenovela. Many writers and directors believe that the style of telling the story makes a difference. The musical, textual and visual diversity is richer than the soap and the telenovela, which also have a slow narrative flow.

Structurally speaking, dizis offer easily comprehensible narratives in their naturally communicated slowness in a wide variety of settings. The large range of locations raises curiosity as each place becomes a puzzle for the local audience, and for the foreign viewers, an eye on places where they do not have the opportunity to travel.

The pace of the production process is unique to the Turkish television industry. Many networks are reluctant to commit themselves to a full-season broadcast without seeing the success of a show, thus the advertising revenues.

This is why production begins with a few episodes in stock and scripts continue to be written on a weekly basis. Through the course of broadcasting, screen writers are exposed to a very rapid response from the audience, actors and producers, a process which has a direct impact on their writing.

This is an almost face-to-face interaction where producers, writers, directors, art directors, directors of photography, editors, musicians, actors, agents and location scouts all have a creative input on the final product. It is therefore very important to explore the mechanisms of collective production, and to look at how the social actors of the dizi world influence and collaborate with one another through this creative process.

Yet, this also makes the lifetime of the dizis very vulnerable, as no dizi can last as long as a soap opera. Gossiping is an extended oral genre, as much as fan site creative writing and clip production. Fans produce nowadays their alternative scripts, and share opinions once the casting process begins to match their star with their other most preferred stars.

Dizis rely heavily on Turkish lieux de mémoire and display a familiar ethnographic imagery, pouring scenes from Turkish ordinary life, which include family meals, true to life costumes and dialogues with traditional sayings Although dizis may be sold all over the world today, they are primarily produced for the local audiences. TRT Documentary Production, The enthusiasm first began in the Middle East, moving west later towards the Balkans and the eastern European countries.

The trend continued with the opening of the Latin American market in and leading towards Asian territories nowadays. Some of these features, like the use of real locations and naturally slow narration, have been mentioned earlier in comparison to other genres. The technical quality of the productions and a rich profile of well performing actors should also be remembered.

New faces with familiar Mediterranean looks were welcome in those territories where dizis were launched. Oakland, University Given their Mediterranean heritage, Latin American countries enjoy the family scenes with similar food or behavioral patterns. To Asian viewers, the Turkish cultural domain also offers a similar value system in terms of gender and class, but also a similar stance vis-a-vis the western world and modernization experiences.

But at the same time, these dizis opened a gate for the new ones, featuring the same lead actors, who became international stars of social media, if not the mainstream magazine press. This turned out to be more visible in the aftermath of the elections, where political critique in the Turkish media became an increasingly constrained and state-controlled issue. With growing authoritarianism, mainstream networks changed hands from liberal owners to more pro-government ones Star in , ATV , obstructing a tradition of political debates and political humor on Turkish television.

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